A descriptive monocentric study in Algeria of adults with cerebral venous thrombosis.
Patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) often present with slowly progressive symptoms, leading to delay in diagnosis. The aim of our single-center study was to highlight the clinical patterns and etiological features of CVT, and to show the impact of diagnostic delay on prognosis in Algerian adults.Retrospective and prospective data of patients with radiologically confirmed CVT were collected over a 10-year period at the neurovascular emergency unit of the Salim Zemirli hospital in Algiers. Manifestations were classified by clinical syndrome. All patients received immediate unfractionated heparin at a hypocoagulant dose. Systematic targeted etiological research for CVT was performed with identification of acquired and genetic risks.The study included 28 patients, median age 32 years. Median time to diagnosis was 11 days. The most common clinical features were headache (79%), focal neurological deficit (48%), seizures (33%), and mental status changes (26%). The superior sagittal and transverse sinuses were most commonly involved. Important predisposing factors included local infection (31%), puerperium (14%), oral contraceptive pill use (11%), Behçet disease (11%) and thrombophilia (18%). Short-term outcome was favorable in a majority of patients, but vision lost was noted in three because of delayed diagnosis.In a single center in Algiers, CVT occurred essentially in young women. Most patients presented acute intracranial hypertension with headache as the cardinal sign. The most common sites of thrombosis were the transverse and the superior sagittal sinuses. Predominantly, acquired causes were infection, puerperium and oral contraceptives. Protein S deficiency was notable. Outcome was favorable in most patients, without sequelae. The prognosis of CVT is decisively dependent on early diagnosis and immediate anticoagulant treatment with heparin.
Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of wetland-derived Streptomyces sp. ActiF450.
The increased incidence of invasive infections and the emerging problem of drug resistance particularly for commonly used molecules have prompted investigations for new, safe and more effective microbial agents. Actinomycetes from unexplored habitats appear as a promising source for novel bioactive compounds with a broad range of biological activities. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate effective wetland-derived actinomycetes against major pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Water samples were collected from various locations of Fetzara Lake, Algeria. Thereafter, an actinomycete designated ActiF450 was isolated using starch-casein-agar medium. The antimicrobial potential of the newly isolated actinomycete was screened using the conventional agar cylinders method on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) against various fungal and bacterial pathogens. A wetland-derived Streptomyces sp. Actif450 was identified as Streptomycesmalaysiensis based on its physiological properties, morphological characteristics, and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces sp. ActiF450 showed a potent and broad spectrum activity against a range of human fungal pathogens including moulds and yeasts, such as Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, Candida albicans, C. glabarta, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Microsporum canis, Rhodotorula mucilaginous and Scodapulariopsis candida. In addition, high antibacterial activity was recorded against pathogenic staphylococci. The novel Streptomyces sp. ActiF450 may present a promising candidate for the production of new bioactive compounds with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity.
Phenolic Compounds from An Algerian Endemic Species of Hypochaeris laevigata var. hipponensis and Investigation of Antioxidant Activities.
:Hypochaeris laevigata var. hipponensis (Asteraceae) is an endemic plant from Algeria. In the current study, we analyzed for the first time its chemical composition, especially phenolic constituents of dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and n-butanol (BuOH) fractionsof the aerial parts of Hypochaeris laevigata var. hipponensis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The number of phenolic compounds detected in DCM, EA, and BuOH fractions were found to be 9, 20, and 15, respectively. More specifically, 12 phenolic acids were detected. Among them, quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid were the most abundant ones. Meanwhile, only seven flavonoids were detected. Among them, rutin, apigetrin, and isoquercitrin were the major ones. We also determined the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and fraction EA showed the highest values, followed by BuOH, and DCM fractions. Furthermore, the antioxidant action was dictated by five methods and the tested plant fractions demonstrated a noteworthy antioxidant action.
Association des marqueurs de la polyarthrite rhumatoïde chez les lupiques. S’agit-il d’un rhupus?
Anti-citrullinated cyclic peptide antibodies (ACPA) were initially considered very specific for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and can predict the prognosis of the disease. However, these antibodies can be detected in other autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the most common manifestation of which is inflammatory arthritis, which is often found in early-stage rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of our study is to evaluate the prevalence of ACPA antibodies and to analyze the profiles of their associations with autoantibodies specific to lupus, in order to look for a possible rhupus overlap syndrome in our patients. This is a retrospective study, carried out at the immunology unit, at Blida University Hospital, Algeria, involving 96 lupus patients, diagnosed according to the criteria of the American college of rheumatology (ACR). ACPA have been identified by the ELISA technique. ACPA was positive in 14,56% of our patients, whereas anti-DNA, anti-Sm and rheumatoid factor (RF) autoantibodies were positive, respectively in 47.09%, 35.41%, and in 26.04% of our patients. In addition, the presence of ACPA with anti DNA was found in 12.5% of patients. Of the 14 with ACPA+, 57.14% had arthritis. Our results confirm that ACPA auto-antibodies do not represent a pathognomonic criterion of RA. This sometimes makes the differential diagnosis with lupus difficult especially at the beginning of the disease.
Genetically “pure” Fasciola gigantica discovered in Algeria: DNA multimarker characterization, trans-Saharan introduction from a Sahel origin and spreading risk into northwestern Maghreb countries.
Fascioliasis is a freshwater snail-borne zoonotic helminth disease caused by two species of trematodes: Fasciola hepatica of almost worldwide distribution and the more pathogenic F. gigantica restricted to parts of Asia and most of Africa. Of high pathological impact in ruminants, it underlies large livestock husbandry losses. Fascioliasis is moreover of high public health importance and accordingly included within the main neglected tropical diseases by WHO. Additionally, this is an emerging disease due to influences of climate and global changes. In Africa, F. gigantica is distributed throughout almost the whole continent except in the northwestern Maghreb countries of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia where only F. hepatica is present. The present study concerns the DNA multimarker characterization of the first finding of F. gigantica in sheep in Algeria by the complete sequences of rDNA ITS-1 and ITS-2 and mtDNA cox1 and nad1 genes. Sequence comparisons and network analyses show sequence identities and similarities suggesting a South-North trans-Saharan geographical origin, with introduction from Ghana, through the Sahel countries of Burkina Faso and Mali into Algeria. This way perfectly fits with nomadic pastoralism according to interconnecting intranational and transborder herd transhumance routes traditionally followed in this western part of Africa from very long ago. The risk for further spread throughout the three northwestern Maghreb countries is multidisciplinarily analyzed, mainly considering the present extensive motorization of the intranational transhumance system in Algeria, the lymnaeid snail vector species present throughout the northwestern Maghreb, the increasing demand for animal products in the growing cities of northern Algeria, and the continued human infection reports. Control measures should assure making antifasciolid drugs available and affordable for herders from the beginning and along their transhumant routes, and include diffusion and rules within the regional regulatory framework about the need for herd treatments.
Seasonal variation of biomarker responses in Cantareus aspersus and physic-chemical properties of soils from Northeast Algeria.
This study belongs to the biomonitoring program of soil qualities using a land snail, Cantareus aspersus, as bioindicator. The metal-soil contamination in some sites (National Park of El Kala (NPK), El Bouni, Sidi Amar, Nechmaya, and Guelma) located in Northeast Algeria were determined during two seasons (winter and spring 2015, 2016). Glutathione (GSH) content and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were significantly decreased in snails collected during spring as compared with those noticed during winter under bioclimate change. In addition, a significant difference between various sites was observed, depending on the proximity to pollution sources. The significant variation of biomarker levels is a function of the physic-chemical properties of soils when they positively correlated with EC, H, and OM, and negatively correlated with all metallic elements. Moreover, Fe and Al2O3 are the most abundant in all the sites, and the most polluted site was found as that of El Bouni, followed by Sidi Amar, Nechmaya, and Guelma, since NPK is the less polluted site and considered a reference site. The tested biomarkers are sensitive oxidative parameters in snails exposed to pollution correlated significantly with the soil physic-chemical properties and metallic element contents in soil. Indeed, C. aspersus could be used as sentinel species in field monitoring of Mediterranean climate regions.
Occurrence of Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Alternaria crassa (Sacc.) Rands on Jimson Weed and Potential Additional Host Plants in Algeria.
A leaf spot pathogen Alternaria sp. was recovered from jimson weed, tomato, parsley, and coriander collected during surveys of blight diseases on Solanaceae and Apiaceae in Algeria. This species produced large conidial body generating long apical beaks that tapered gradually from a wide base to a narrow tip and short conidiophores originating directly from the agar surface. This species exhibited morphological traits similar to that reported for Alternaria crassa. The identification of seven strains from different hosts was confirmed by sequence analyses at the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, RNA polymerase second largest subunit, and translation elongation factor 1-alpha loci. Further the pathogen was evaluated on jimson weed, coriander, parsley, and tomato plants, and this fungus was able to cause necrotic lesions on all inoculated plants. A. crassa is reported for the first time as a new species of the Algerian mycoflora and as a new potential pathogen for cultivated hosts.
Unsuspected intraspecific variability in the toxin production, growth and morphology of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp. nov (Group IV) blooming in a South Western Mediterranean marine ecosystem, Annaba Bay (Algeria).
Physiological plasticity gives HABs species the ability to respond to variations in the surrounding environment. The aim of this study was to examine morphological and physiological variability in Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp. nov (Group IV) (former Alexandrium catenella) blooming in Annaba bay, Algeria. Monoclonal cultures of up to 30 strains of this neurotoxic dinoflagellate were established by the germination of single resting cysts from the surface sediment of this southern Mediterranean marine ecosystem. Ribotyping confirmed formally for the first time that A. pacificum is developing in Eastern Algerian waters. Toxin analyses of A. pacificum strains revealed substantial intraspecific variability in both the profile and toxin amount. However, the toxin profile of most strains is characterized by the dominance of GTX6 (up to 96 mol %) which is the less toxic paralytic molecule. The toxin concentrations in the isolated strains varied widely between 3.8 and 30.82 fmol cell-1. We observed an important variation in the growth rate of the studied A. pacificum strains with values ranging from 0.05 to 0.33 d-1. The lag time of the studied strains varied widely and ranged from 4 to 20 days. The intraspecific diversity could be a response to the selection pressure which may be exerted by different environmental conditions over time and which can be genetically and in turn physiologically expressed. This study highlights, for the first time, that the sediment of a limited area holds an important diversity of A. pacificum cysts which give when germinate populations with noticeable physiological plasticity. Consequently, this diversified natural populations allow an exceptional adaptation to specific environmental conditions to outcompete local microalgae and to establish HABs which could explain why this dinoflagellate is successful and expanding worldwide.
Prévalences et facteurs associés à un risque augmenté ou diminué d’exposition à Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydia abortus et Toxoplasma gondii chez la vache laitière ayant avorté en Algérie.
In Algeria, the prevalence of causes of abortion on dairy cattle farms (whether infectious causes or not) has been little studied. The current study involved a serological analysis conducted between October 2014 and June 2016 in northern Algeria using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test on blood samples taken from 368 cows that had aborted on 124 farms. It was complemented by a survey to identify the factors associated with a higher or lower risk of exposure to Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydia abortus and Toxoplasma gondii, using univariate logistic regression and then multivariate logistic regression. The individual serological prevalences obtained were 8.4% (31/368) for C. burnetii and 12.2% (45/368) for C. abortus. For T. gondii, the individual seroprevalence was 13.8% (51/368); the factors associated with a higher risk of individual exposure were the fourth month of gestation (odds ratio [OR] = 22.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-392.97) and the fifth month of gestation (OR = 25.51; 95% CI: 1.47-442.11). All the other factors identified by the multivariate logistic regression were associated with a lower risk of exposure. They are the inspection visits in 2015 (OR = 0.0006; 95% CI: 0.000004-0.12) and in 2016 (OR = 0.0005; 95% CI: 0.000002-0.13) and artificial insemination (OR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.05-0.44) for C. burnetii ; winter (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.15-1.00), spring (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.20-0.97), and artificial insemination (OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.13-0.56) for C. abortus; and the number of gestations (OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.16-0.92) for T. gondii. The seroprevalence at herd level was 16.1% (20/124) for C. burnetii and 29.8% (37/124) for both C. abortus and T. gondii. At herd level, the risk factors associated with a higher risk of exposure to C. abortus and T. gondii were the practice of deworming (OR = 3.89; 95% CI: 1.53-9.89) and drilling individual wells as a source of drinking water (OR = 7.50; 95% CI: 2.11-26.69). For C. burnetii, the inspection visit in 2015 (OR = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.0008-0.65) and in 2016 (OR = 0.01; 95% CI: 0.0003-0.36), artificial insemination (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06-0.69) and rodent eradication (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06-0.57) were factors that reduced the risk of exposure.
Incidence of human dog-mediated zoonoses and demographic characteristics/vaccination coverage of the domestic dog population in Algeria.
Control of zoonotic diseases requires a One Health integrated action from both human and animal health sectors. The aims of the present study were to estimate the incidence of dog-mediated zoonoses in humans and to describe demographic characteristics and vaccination coverage of the domestic dog population in Algeria. The results show that rabies, leishmaniosis and echinococcosis are the major zoonoses in Algeria, with an average of 20.6 (deaths), 8,276 and 455 human cases per year, respectively. A door-to-door survey was conducted among 652 households with at least one dog, of which 334 (51.33%) were located in urban areas and 318 (48.77%) in rural areas. The mean number of dogs per household in rural areas (2.02) is higher than that in urban areas (1.41). Furthermore, a high percentage of semi-confined and free-roaming and a low proportion of vaccinated dogs were recorded in rural areas. Vaccination coverage for rabies, canine distemper virus, Rubarth hepatitis, leptospirosis and parvovirus was lowest in rural dog populations. The analysis of risk factors established that semi-confined or free-roaming dogs, non-pedigree breeds, hunting dogs, herding dogs and the presence of more than three dogs per household are risk factors for dogs not being vaccinated.
Composition, chemical variability and biological activity of Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil from Central Algeria.
Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Sprengel (Poaceae) is an aromatic plant whose aerial parts and rhizome produced an essential oil with pleasant odor. A chemical variability has been observed depending of the countries where the plant grows wild, including Algeria. The chemical compositions of 24 oil samples isolated from plants harvested in Central Algeria have been investigated, in order to evidence homogeneity or chemical variability within a given area of harvest. Twenty of these were dominated by cis – and trans – p -menth-2-en-1-ols (22.6% ± 3.6 and 14.3% ± 1.7, respectively) beside four atypical compositions. Otherwise, aerial parts and rhizomes produced similar essential oils. Lastly, a fair antimicrobial activity was measured against Staphylococcus aureus strain, while the antioxidant potential was low.
Ethnobotanical survey of three members of family Lamiaceae among the inhabitants of Bejaia, Northern Algeria.
Background This paper presents the uses of Calamintha nepeta, Teucrium flavum and Thymus numidicus in food and in traditional herbal medicines in six districts from Bejaia state, Northern Algeria. Materials A semi-structured interview was conducted to 52 informants, including questions on the demographic data of the informants and uses of the three medicinal plants to determine the alimentary and the medicinal uses of these plants in Bejaia state. Results The demographic data of the informants indicate that rural participants are the principal consumers of medicinal plants. Data regarding experience of medicinal plants preparation show that 36.5% was confined to the experienced informants, while 63.5% of the informants were inexperienced. Women used medicinal plants more frequently than men; it is recorded that there were 42.3% male informants and 57.7% female informants. Studied plants were used for curing a total of 10 diseases. Also, C. nepeta and T. numidicus were applied as condiment in food, but T. flavum was found to have no food uses in all districts. Conclusion Bejaia district is rich in biodiversity of food and medicinal plants and there is need for further studies to validate their use as potential drugs.
Prevalence of overweight and underweight in schoolchildren in Constantine, Algeria: comparison of four reference cut-off points for body mass index.
Algeria is experiencing a nutritional transition and increasing overweight in children.This study aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and underweight in children aged 6-10 years in Constantine city, Algeria using four international reference cut-offs for body mass index.A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and May 2015 with a sample of 509 schoolchildren aged 6-10 years. Height and weight were measured according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. The body mass index cut-offs of WHO, International Obesity Task Force, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and French national references were used to classify the sample as underweight and overweight according to age and sex. The kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement between the reference cut-offs.Based on the of different reference cut-offs, the prevalence of underweight in the children varied from 1.4% to 8.8%. The prevalence of overweight varied from 22.8% to 28.3%. The WHO cut-off gave a significantly higher prevalence of overweight in boys than girls (32.6% versus 24.0%, P = 0.03). The kappa values (between 0.251 and 0.954) indicated a fair to excellent agreement between the different reference cut-offs.The prevalence of overweight and underweight differs in the Constantine children depending on the reference cut-off used, suggesting international references should be used with care to avoid potential misclassification of children’s nutritional status.
Candida tropicalis is the most prevalent yeast species causing candidemia in Algeria: the urgent need for antifungal stewardship and infection control measures.
Despite being associated with a high mortality and economic burden, data regarding candidemia are scant in Algeria. The aim of this study was to unveil the epidemiology of candidemia in Algeria, evaluate the antifungal susceptibility pattern of causative agents and understand the molecular mechanisms of antifungal resistance where applicable. Furthermore, by performing environmental screening and microsatellite typing we sought to identify the source of infection.We performed a retrospective epidemiological-based surveillance study and collected available blood yeast isolates recovered from the seven hospitals in Algiers. To identify the source of infection, we performed environmental screening from the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) and high touch areas. Species identification was performed by API Auxa-Color and MALDI-TOF MS and ITS sequencing was performed for species not reliably identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Antifungal susceptibility testing followed CLSI M27-A3/S4 and included all blood and environmental yeast isolates. ERG11 sequencing was performed for azole-resistant Candida isolates. Microsatellite typing was performed for blood and environmental Candida species, where applicable.Candida tropicalis (19/66) was the main cause of candidemia in these seven hospitals, followed by Candida parapsilosis (18/66), Candida albicans (18/66), and Candida glabrata (7/66). The overall mortality rate was 68.6% (35/51) and was 81.2% for C. tropicalis-infected patients (13/16). Fluconazole was the main antifungal drug used (12/51); 41% of the patients (21/51) did not receive any systemic treatment. Candida parapsilosis was isolated mainly from the hands of HCWs (7/28), and various yeasts were collected from high-touch areas (11/47), including Naganishia albida, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata. Typing data revealed interhospital transmission on two occasions for C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata, and the same clone of C. parapsilosis infected two patients within the same hospital. Resistance was only noted for C. tropicalis against azoles (6/19) and fluconazole-resistant C. tropicalis isolates (≥8 μg/ml) (6/19) contained a novel P56S (5/6) amino acid substitution and a previously reported one (V234F; 1/6) in Erg11p.Collectively, our data suggest an urgent need for antifungal stewardship and infection control strategies to improve the clinical outcome of Algerian patients with candidemia. The high prevalence of C. tropicalis joined by fluconazole-resistance may hamper the therapeutic efficacy of fluconazole, the frontline antifungal drug used in Algeria.
Association of TERT, OGG1, and CHRNA5 Polymorphisms and the Predisposition to Lung Cancer in Eastern Algeria.
Lung cancer remains the most common cancer in the world. The genetic polymorphisms (rs2853669 in TERT, rs1052133 in OGG1, and rs16969968 in CHRNA5 genes) were shown to be strongly associated with the risk of lung cancer. Our study’s aim is to elucidate whether these polymorphisms predispose Eastern Algerian population to non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To date, no study has considered this association in the Algerian population. This study included 211 healthy individuals and 144 NSCLC cases. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan probes and Sanger sequencing, and the data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression adjusted for covariates. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs) of TERT rs2853669, CHRNA5 rs16969968, and OGG1 rs1052133 polymorphisms in controls were C: 20%, A: 31%, and G: 29%, respectively. Of the three polymorphisms, none shows a significant association, but stratified analysis rs16969968 showed that persons carrying the AA genotype are significantly associated with adenocarcinoma risk (pAdj = 0.03, ORAdj = 2.55). Smokers with an AA allele have a larger risk of lung cancer than smokers with GG or GA genotype (pAdj = 0.03, ORAdj = 3.91), which is not the case of nonsmokers. Our study suggests that CHRNA5 rs16969968 polymorphism is associated with a significant increase of lung adenocarcinoma risk and with a nicotinic addiction.
Resistance to multiple first-line antibiotics among Escherichia coli from poultry in Western Algeria.
Background and Aim
Escherichia coli can cause a number of serious infections both in human and veterinary medicine. Their management is increasingly complicated by the emergence and dissemination of multiresistance to various first-line antimicrobial agents. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance level to the commonly used antibiotics, with a focus on the first-line antimicrobial agents, in E. coli strains isolated from poultry in Western Algeria.
Materials and Methods
E. coli culture was done on MacConkey agar and their identification was determined by AP20E system. For susceptibility testing, disk diffusion method to 14 antimicrobials, including first-line antibiotics, was used according to Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar and the results were interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. E. coli isolates were considered as multidrug resistance (MDR) when found resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent of three different families of antibiotics. Double-disk synergy and combination disk tests were used for initial screening and confirmation for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) production, respectively.
A total of 145 E. coli strains were isolated in this study. High resistance levels to various antibiotics, including commonly used first-line antimicrobial agents, were recorded in this study. The highest resistance level was observed against nalidixic acid (90.34%, n=131), followed by tetracycline (86.89%, n=126), ampicillin (82.75%, n=120), enrofloxacin (80.68%, n=117) and neomycin (80.68%, n=117), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (73.79%, n=107), norfloxacin (72.41%, n=105) and cephalothin (72.41%, n=105), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (51.72%, n=75), chloramphenicol (22.75%, n=33), nitrofurantoin (17.24%, n=25), gentamicin (13.10%, n=19), and ceftiofur (3.44%, n=5). Moreover, resistance to multiple first-line antibiotics was also demonstrated in the present study. Overall, 139 out of 145 isolates (95.86%) demonstrated MDR (resistant to at least three antibiotics). In addition, five E. coli isolates (3.44%) were confirmed to be ESBL producers.
The alarming rate of E. coli resistant to multiple first-line antibiotics in poultry demands intensified surveillance. These results call for taking drastic measures to preserve antibiotic effectiveness and reduce the emergence risks of extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant E. coli isolates.
Genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in Sardinia (Italy).
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a severe parasitic zoonosis caused by the metacestode of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). The disease has a global distribution representing a significant public health concern. Based on mitochondrial DNA analysis E. granulosus s.l. has been subdivided into five species: E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) (G1, G3 genotype), E. equinus (G4 genotype), E. ortleppi (G5 genotype), E. canadensis (G6-G8, G10 genotype) and E. felidis. E. granulosus s.s., and in particular G1, is the most widespread genotype and the major responsible of human CE cases worldwide. In Italy G1 genotype is higly represented with larger percentages in some hyperendemic areas such as Sardinia. Molecular studies represent a valuable tool to improve our understanding of the E. granulosus epidemiology and CE control strategies. In the present study we investigated genetic variability of E. granulosus s.s. in Sardinia. To this purpose 83 hydatid cysts were collected from different animal species including humans and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene was partially sequenced (720 bp). Nucleotide sequences from Mediterranean basin were also analyzed for comparison. The phylogenetic network revealed 30 haplotypes grouped around a predominant isolate that had been already reported from other world regions. Haplotype diversity (0.8495 ± 0.0336) and nucleotide diversity (0.003305 ± 0.002014) were similar in Sardinia respect to other Mediterranean countries. Neutrality indices obtained by Tajima’s D and Fu’s Fs test were significantly negative (p ≤ .01) suggesting expansion of Sardinian population. Low Fixation indices (Fst), ranging from negative values (Algeria, Greece, Spain, other part of Italy) to 0.089 (Albania, France), indicated absence of genetic differentiation, and gene flow between Sardinia and other Mediterranean countries.
Radiochemical separation by liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of selenium in Mentha pulegium L.: Toxicity monitoring and health study.
In Algeria, Data and studies on the non-metal trace element selenium (Se) are presently lacking, therefore, the aim of this investigation is to provide new data on (Se) element via its determination for the first time from Mentha pulegium L. plant. The plant samples were collected in summer of 2012 from Ain-Oussera region, Djelfa province, Algeria; they were dried and powdered. After the neutron irradiation, the samples were digested using high oxidative reagents including H2SO4, HNO3, H2O2 and HCl. The end of this process gave two phases, organic and aqueous discard phase. By using a separating funnel, the organic phase was transferred into a vial in order to measure their induce radionuclide 75Se using gamma-ray spectrometer. A non-chromatographic and sensitive analytical technique RNAA (Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis), was applied in this investigation due to its great significant minor systematic error. Results were determined using two distinguish calculation methods, relative-RNAA and k0-RNAA, the findings were quite significant, whereas, the average separation yield was about 85% for both calculation methodologies. Moreover, (Se) concentration obtained from M. pulegium L., is close to the minimal FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) recommended consumption.
Genetic characterization of four Algerian cattle breeds using microsatellite markers.
Cattle plays a very important role in agriculture and food security in Algeria. In the present study, the genetic diversity and structure of Algerian indigenous cattle populations were evaluated by microsatellite markers. A total of 138 individuals belonging to four cattle breed populations were characterized using 22 microsatellite markers. A total of 360 alleles was detected across studied all loci. Results obtained for the mean number of alleles (16.36), expected heterozygosity (0.84) and polymorphic information content (0.82) indicated that the total analyzed populations are characterized by noticeable genetic variability. It can be said that there is a low genetic differentiation in the cattle populations studied considering obtained mean FST value (0.039). It was revealed 97.10% of the total genetic variation can be explained by genetic differences among individuals while 2.90% among populations. The structure, factorial correspondence analysis results and dendrogram showed that cattle populations studied are clustered in three groups. The present study has revealed an important knowledge about the genetic diversity and the relationship between some native cattle breeds raised in Algeria. The results showed that the breeds studied have a high genetic diversity. Moreover, it can be said that microsatellite markers used can be successfully used to determine genetic diversity and population structure in Algerian cattle breeds.
Development and Proof-of-Concept Application of Genome-Enabled Selection for Pea Grain Yield under Severe Terminal Drought.
Terminal drought is the main stress limiting pea (Pisum sativum L.) grain yield in Mediterranean environments. This study aimed to investigate genotype × environment (GE) interaction patterns, define a genomic selection (GS) model for yield under severe drought based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from genotyping-by-sequencing, and compare GS with phenotypic selection (PS) and marker-assisted selection (MAS). Some 288 lines belonging to three connected RIL populations were evaluated in a managed-stress (MS) environment of Northern Italy, Marchouch (Morocco), and Alger (Algeria). Intra-environment, cross-environment, and cross-population predictive ability were assessed by Ridge Regression best linear unbiased prediction (rrBLUP) and Bayesian Lasso models. GE interaction was particularly large across moderate-stress and severe-stress environments. In proof-of-concept experiments performed in a MS environment, GS models constructed from MS environment and Marchouch data applied to independent material separated top-performing lines from mid- and bottom-performing ones, and produced actual yield gains similar to PS. The latter result would imply somewhat greater GS efficiency when considering same selection costs, in partial agreement with predicted efficiency results. GS, which exploited drought escape and intrinsic drought tolerance, exhibited 18% greater selection efficiency than MAS (albeit with non-significant difference between selections) and moderate to high cross-population predictive ability. GS can be cost-efficient to raise yields under severe drought.
Chemical characterization of fine particles (PM2.5) at a coastal site in the South Western Mediterranean during the ChArMex experiment.
As part of the ChArMEx project (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr), one year of continuous filter sampling was conducted from August 2012 to August 2013 at a rural (coastal) site in Algeria aiming to better document fine aerosol seasonal variability and chemical composition in the Southern part of the Mediterranean. Over 350 filters have been collected, weighted, and analyzed for the main ions and organic and elemental carbon. The obtained mass concentrations varied between 2.5 and 50.6 μg/m3 for PM2.5. The annual modulations of PM2.5 showed higher concentrations in the end summer 2012 and the early summer 2013 (28.50 μg/m3 in August 2012, 20.23 μg/m3 in September 2012, 20.19 μg/m3 in July 2013, and 17.88 μg/m3in August 2013). The particulate organic matter (POM) presented the greatest contribution (50%), followed by the secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA, 27%). The average organic carbon OC concentrations ranged from 1.66 to 6.05 μgC/m3. The average elemental carbon EC concentrations ranged from 0.92 to 3.49 μgC/m3 and contributed 7% of the PM2.5 mass to Bou-Ismail. The average value of the OC /EC ratio was close to 5.1 in Bou-Ismail, and was close to that found in Finokalia 4 (Greece 2004, 2006) but was lower than that of Montseny 11 (Spain 2002-2007) Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The concentrations of water-soluble organic carbon WSOC in the PM2.5 ranging from 0.66 to 3.70 μg/m3 recorded the minimum level in March 2013, and the maximum level in August 2012, with an average of 2.02 μg/m3.
Revision of the genus Dziriblatta Chopard, 1936 (Blattodea, Ectobiidae, Ectobiinae). II. The species of the subgenera Pauciscleroblatta and Monoscleroblatta.
The present paper is a continuation of the revision of the genus Dziriblatta started with definition and description of the nine subgenera of the genus (Bohn 2019). In that first part of the revision usually only one species of each subgenus was described; the remaining species should be treated in following papers of which this contribution is the first dealing with the species of the subgenera Pauciscleroblatta (6 species) and Monoscleroblatta (4 species). Five species are new to science: Dziriblatta (Pauciscleroblatta) cyprica, spec. nov., Dz. (P.) habbachii, spec. nov., Dz. (P.) stenoptera, spec. nov., Dz. (P.) multiporosa, spec. nov., and Dz. (Monoscleroblatta) aglandulosa, spec. nov. The descriptions are illustrated by numerous figures and determination keys allow the discrimination of the species. The geographical distribution of the species is shown on several maps. The species of Pauciscleroblatta are distributed in Algeria, Tunisia, Israel, West Bank, Syria (Golan) and Cyprus, those of Monoscleroblatta are restricted to northwestern Morocco.
Diversity and abundance of Lepidoptera populations in the Theniet El Had National Park (Algeria).
An inventory of Lepidoptera in the Theniet El Had National Park (PNTEH), Algeria, revealed 86 taxa, both butterflies and moths. The specimens were collected in 68 localities distributed over ten cantons within the park in the period 2015-2017. A preliminary faunistic list is compiled as a base-line contribution to the study of adult Lepidoptera in this park. In total, 3139 specimens were collected. The moths are clearly well diversified, with 14 families and 49 species obtained from a total of 1485 adult specimens. The butterflies are represented by 5 families.