Medical students as adverse drug event managers, learning about side effects while improving their reporting in clinical practice

Managing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is a problem, particularly as a result of most healthcare professionals are insufficiently educated for this process. Since context-based clinical pharmacovigilance coaching has confirmed efficient, we assessed the feasibility and impact of a making a crew of Junior-Adverse Drug Event Managers (J-ADEMs). The J-ADEM crew consisted of medical students (1st-Sixth 12 months) tasked with managing and reporting ADRs in hospitalized sufferers. Feasibility was evaluated utilizing questionnaires. Student competence in reporting ADRs was evaluated utilizing a case-control design and questionnaires earlier than and after J-ADEM program participation.
From Augustus 2018 to Augustus 2019, 41 students participated in a J-ADEM crew and screened 136 sufferers and submitted 65 ADRs experiences to the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Center Lareb. Almost all sufferers (n = 61) discovered it vital that “their” ADR was reported, and all (n = 62) sufferers felt they had been taken critically by the J-ADEM crew. Although attending physicians agreed that the ADRs ought to have been reported, they didn’t achieve this themselves primarily due to a “lack of awareness and attitudes” (50%) and “excuses made by healthcare professionals” (49%). J-ADEM crew students had been considerably extra competent than management students in managing ADRs and accurately making use of all steps for diagnosing ADRs (management group 38.5% vs. intervention group 83.3%, p < 0.001).
The J-ADEM crew is a possible method for detecting and managing ADRs in hospital. Patients had been happy with the care supplied, physicians had been supported in their ADR reporting obligations, and students acquired related fundamental and clinical pharmacovigilance abilities and information, making it a win-win-win intervention. A 3-h workshop, aimed to critically appraise analysis papers, reviewed cervical and ovarian most cancers screening strategies. The workshop was facilitated by a Consultant in Gynae-oncology Surgery. Anonymous analysis was requested from 200 9 students attending through the 2018/2019 educational 12 months. Qualitative analysis with thematic evaluation of content material was carried out.
One hundred fifty-six students gave analysis on the workshop itself (74.6%). Three important themes had been identified-support for the significance of instructing screening strategies, appreciation of the significance of understanding cervical screening and a want for additional instructing in Critical Appraisal. Students recognized that there was a necessity to know screening, that it was “..vital for us to think about the worth of screening programmes”. The instructing on Cervical screening was “..useful, particularly with cervical screening”.

Initial Resuscitation of a Multisystem Trauma Patient Following a Fall From Height: A Complete Simulation Scenario for Medical Students

Management of a fancy trauma affected person is a crucial talent for medical students, significantly throughout a common surgical procedure or emergency medication clerkship. However, gaining proficiency with this skillset could also be difficult with out prior medical or simulation expertise. The purpose of this technical report is to current a complete high-fidelity medical simulation of a polytraumatized affected person with quite a few accidents sustained from a 20-foot fall.

As the situation unfolds, students determine multisystem accidents together with acute hemorrhage, femur fracture, pressure pneumothorax, and traumatic mind harm. The case was designed as an evaluation device to guage the information of preclinical medical students obtained by way of a one-day workshop on the first survey. This technical report supplies simulation designers with a premade script, flowchart, labs, pictures, and provides wanted to efficiently recreate the case.

Medical students as adverse drug event managers, learning about side effects while improving their reporting in clinical practice

Medical Student Ultrasound Education: The Radiology Chair Weighs In

To assess the radiology division chairs’ opinions regarding present standing and plans for instructing ultrasound to medical students, the American College Taskforce on Radiology Ultrasound Education, commissioned by the American College of Radiology, distributed a survey to 142 radiology chairs and a medical college dean subgroup.The response price was 30% (42/142), and 76% indicated ultrasound was presently a part of the medical pupil curriculum. In preclinical years, radiology involvement was solely 6.4%. During clinical years, radiology led ultrasound schooling with 51.7% in common and 82.9% in elective rotations.

Regarding precise content material, prime Four outcomes had been evenly distributed between learning hands-on scanning (81.1%), diagnostic use of ultrasound (75.7%), anatomy/pathology (75.7%), and ultrasound steerage for procedures (54.0%). Educational leaders in preclinical programs had been emergency medication (72.7%) adopted by radiology (45.4%) physicians. During clinical years, leaders had been radiology (52.6%) and emergency medication (47.4%) physicians.

Most chairs said that information of diagnostic ultrasound ought to be necessary (76.2%), stressing the significance of instructing the diagnostic capabilities and makes use of of ultrasound as the first purpose (78.8%). Perceived boundaries to implementation had been evenly distributed between lack of area in the curriculum (55.6%), lack of college (48.2%), lack of assets (44.4%), and lack of institutional help (40.7%). The American College Taskforce on Radiology Ultrasound Education survey exhibits that radiology’s position in ultrasound undergraduate schooling happens nearly completely throughout clinical years, and the chairs voice a want to enhance upon this position. Barriers embrace each intradepartmental (college and assets) and institutional (curricular) elements.

For medical faculties, the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated examination and curricular restructuring as effectively as vital adjustments to clinical attachments. With the obtainable proof suggesting that medical students’ psychological well being standing is already poorer than that of the final inhabitants, with educational stress being a chief predictor, such adjustments are more likely to have a major impact on these students.

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This on-line, cross-sectional examine aimed to find out the affect of COVID-19 on perceived stress ranges of medical students, examine doable contributing and assuaging elements, and produce suggestions for medical faculties to implement throughout future healthcare emergencies. The majority (54.5%) of respondents reported ranges of stress starting from reasonable to excessive.

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The effects of long-term extracurricular scientific research on the medical students: Insight from Jinan University Medical School

The advantages and long-term effects of extracurricular scientific research on undergraduate college students in lots of international locations have been intensively investigated, but it surely stays obscure for Chinese medical college students. In this examine, we investigated the end result of 60 medical college students who’ve participated in extracurricular scientific research at Jinan University Medical School over a interval of 7 years (2011-2018). The outcomes revealed that these college students have contributed to 31 biomedical science articles in respected educational journals, as first- or co-authors.

Furthermore, additionally they independently procured numerous funding based mostly on their research achievements, and smaller awards for achievements in conferences and competitions. Assessment of the grade level common rating of these college students revealed that conducting extracurricular scientific research didn’t have an effect on their routine medical examine and examination grades (P>0.05). The college students benefited from collaborating in extracurricular research, by buying the potential to assume scientifically and enhancing their communication abilities.

In addition, the medical college students had been motivated to enlist for postgraduate research in order that they might additional embark in scientific research. In sum, Chinese medical college students are succesful of collaborating in scientific research and make a big contribution to science. Linear regressions had been adjusted for gender, anticipated specialty alternative, parental schooling, dwelling standing, monetary insecurity, randomization group and baseline JSE-S.

This examine was performed between February and March 2019, in the Eastern area of Saudi Arabia, utilizing scientific pharmacy college students at the two universities that supply a pharmacy program there (King Faisal University and Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University). An digital questionnaire instrument was tailored to discover the intentions of and boundaries to hold out medical research amongst the college students.

 Descriptive statistics are introduced as frequencies and percentages. A χ2 check was used to discover any statistically vital distinction between the pupil demographics and the intentions and boundaries relating to medical research. P ≤ 0.05 was thought-about statistically vital. Our examine highlights that the intention amongst scientific pharmacy college students to hold out medical research was poor. Educational establishments are suggested to offer extra monetary and logistic assist to their medical researchers.

Knowledge and attitudes of U.S. medical college students relating to the care of Asian American sufferers: a cross-sectional survey examine

Asian Americans (AsAm) are a quickly rising inhabitants in the U.S. With this rising inhabitants, U.S. healthcare suppliers have to be outfitted to offer culturally competent look after AsAm sufferers. This challenge surveyed U.S. medical college students on their information of and attitudes in the direction of AsAm to evaluate predictors of readiness to look after AsAm sufferers.
This cross-sectional examine surveyed medical college students who had accomplished at the least one scientific rotation. The survey was distributed on-line to 9 medical faculties all through the U.S. The survey measured self-rated information of, consolation with, cultural competency (CC) in the direction of, and specific biases in the direction of AsAm sufferers. The first three domains had been analyzed in a multivariate regression mannequin together with sociodemographic traits and previous scientific, curricular, and social experiences with AsAm. Explicit bias questions had been reported descriptively.
 There had been 688 respondents. Asian race, AsAm-prevalent hometown, AsAm-related extracurricular actions, Asian language information, and having taken a inhabitants well being course predicted elevated AsAm information. Social interactions with AsAm elevated consolation with AsAm sufferers. Increasing 12 months in medical college, extra frequent publicity to AsAm sufferers on rotations, and prior journey to an Asian nation had been predictors of elevated CC towards AsAm.
Importantly, having accomplished a CC course was a big predictor in all domains. In phrases of specific bias, college students felt that AsAm sufferers had been extra compliant than Caucasian sufferers. Students additionally believed that Caucasian sufferers had been usually extra prone to obtain self-perceived “most popular” versus “acceptable” care, however that in their very own scientific experiences neither group acquired most popular care.
Experience with and publicity to AsAm previous to and through medical college and CC programs might improve medical pupil information, consolation, and CC with AsAm sufferers. Standardized and longitudinal CC coaching, elevated simulations with AsAm sufferers, numerous pupil recruitment, and assist for college kids to have interaction in AsAm-related actions and work together with AsAm might enhance CC of future physicians in the direction of AsAm sufferers and presumably different minority populations.
The effects of long-term extracurricular scientific research on the medical students: Insight from Jinan University Medical School

Personality traits are related to cognitive empathy in medical college students however not with its evolution and interventions to enhance it

Cognitive empathy would possibly lower throughout medical college. Factors related to its evolution stay poorly understood, in addition to whether or not such components might average the impact of an intervention to protect cognitive empathy. The intention was to discover the associations between character traits and each cognitive empathy at baseline and its adjustments at follow-up. The attainable impact of an intervention depended upon character traits was additionally examined.
The cohort consisted of fourth 12 months medical college students and the associations between character traits, utilizing the Short Big Five Inventory, and cognitive empathy adjustments at 3-month, utilizing the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Student model (JSE-S), had been examined. A randomization in two teams (Balint teams versus no intervention) allowed analyzing whether or not the impact of the intervention depended upon character traits.
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The cohort included 311 members from October 2015 to December 2016 at Paris Diderot and Paris Descartes University. At follow-up, there was a JSE-S whole rating improve of 1.22(SD:9.10) in the intervention group, in comparison with a lower of 1.64(SD:10.74) in the different group. Baseline JSE-S was positively related to Extraversion and Conscientiousness and negatively with Neuroticism. In distinction, we discovered no associations between baseline character traits and JSE-S change. There had been no interactions between character traits and randomization group.

Exploring why medical students still feel underprepared for clinical practice: a qualitative analysis of an authentic on-call simulation

Current analysis reveals that many UK medical graduates proceed to feel underprepared to work as a junior physician. Most analysis on this discipline has centered on new graduates and employed the use of retrospective self-rating questionnaires. There stays a lack of detailed understanding of the challenges encountered in making ready for clinical apply, particularly these confronted by medical students, the place related academic interventions may have a vital affect. Through use of a novel on-call simulation, we got down to decide components affecting perceived preparation for apply in closing 12 months medical students and determine methods during which we could higher assist them all through their undergraduate coaching.
30 closing 12 months medical students from Imperial College London participated in a 90-minute simulation on hospital wards, developed to recreate a real looking on-call expertise of a newly certified physician. Students partook in pairs, every noticed by a certified physician taking discipline notes on their selections and actions. A 60-minute semi-structured debrief between observer and scholar pair was audio-recorded for analysis. Six key themes emerged from the on-call simulation debriefs: info overload, the truth hole, making use of present data, destructive emotions and feelings, unfamiliar environment, and studying ‘on the job’.
The mixture of excessive constancy on-call simulation, shut commentary and personalised debrief presents a novel perception into the difficulties confronted by undergraduates of their preparation for work as a junior physician. In utilizing CLT to conceptualise the information, we are able to start to know how cognitive load could also be optimised inside this context and, in doing so, we spotlight methods during which undergraduate curricula could also be tailored to higher assist students of their preparation for clinical apply.
Recommendations are centred round enhancing the experience of the learner via ‘entire job’ coaching approaches and built-in studying, in addition to navigating destructive feelings and supporting lifelong ‘studying whereas working’. Field notes and students’ clinical documentation had been used to discover any challenges encountered. Debrief transcripts had been thematically analysed via a common inductive method. Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) was used as a lens via which to finalise the evolving themes. 

A program analysis reporting scholar perceptions of early clinical publicity to main care at a new medical school in Qatar

Though widespread apply in Europe, few research have described the efficacy of early clinical publicity (ECE) within the Middle East. The boundaries to clinical studying skilled by these novice medical students haven’t been reported. This analysis reviews on introducing ECE in main care, supported by Experiential Review (ER) debriefing classes. The analysis explores students’ experiences of their acquisition of clinical and non-technical abilities, sociocultural points generally encountered however underreported and boundaries to clinical studying skilled.
We carried out a cross-sectional research of three scholar cohorts in 2017-19: All second and third-year students on the new College of Medicine had been invited to take part. The main end result was students’ perceptions of the goals of the Primary Health Centre Placement (PHCP) programme and the way it facilitated studying. Secondary end result measures had been students’ perceptions of their studying in ER classes and perceived boundaries to studying throughout PHCPs. Student perceptions of the PHCPs had been measured utilizing a Likert scale-based
 One hundred and fifty-one students participated: 107 in 12 months 2 and 44 in 12 months 3; 72.3% had been feminine. Overall, most students (> 70%) strongly agreed or agreed with the needs of the PCHPs. Most students (71%) strongly agreed or agreed that the PCHPs allowed them to study affected person care; 58% to look at docs as position fashions and 55% to debate managing widespread clinical issues with household physicians. Most students (12 months 2 = 62.5% and 12 months 3 = 67%) strongly agreed/agreed that they had been now assured taking histories and analyzing sufferers.
Student boundaries to clinical studying included: Unclear studying outcomes (48.3%); school too busy to show (41.7%); missing understanding of clinical drugs (29.1%); shyness (26.5%); and discovering speaking to sufferers tough and embarrassing (25.8%). Over 70% reported that ER enabled them to debate moral {and professional} points. Overall, our Middle Eastern students regard ECE as helpful to their clinical studying. PHCPs and ER classes collectively present helpful academic experiences for novice learners. We suggest additional exploration of the boundaries to studying to discover whether or not these novice students’ perceptions are manifesting underlying cultural sensitivities or acculturation to their new surroundings.
Exploring why medical students still feel underprepared for clinical practice: a qualitative analysis of an authentic on-call simulation

First Into the Lifeboats: Protecting Medical Student Education During the Hahnemann University Hospital Closure

The announcement of the closure of Philadelphia’s Hahnemann University Hospital in June 2019 despatched shock waves via the tutorial neighborhood. The closure had a devastating affect on the residents and fellows who skilled there, the sufferers who had lengthy obtained their care there, and college and workers who had supplied care there for a long time. Since its beginnings, the hospital, established as half of Hahnemann Medical College in 1885, was a main website for medical scholar schooling.

The authors share the planning earlier than and actions throughout the disaster that protected the tutorial experiences of third- and fourth-year medical students at Drexel University College of Medicine assigned to Hahnemann University Hospital. The classes they discovered will be useful to management in educational well being programs within the United States dealing with a diminishing quantity of clinical coaching websites for medical and different well being professions students, a scenario that’s prone to worsen because the pandemic continues to weaken the well being care ecosystem.

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Applications from first-time, US allopathic seniors between the 2014-2015 and the 2019-2020 software cycles had been reviewed. Data had been abstracted from Electronic Residency Application Service purposes and match outcomes decided utilizing the National Residency Matching Program database and on-line public sources. The relationship between analysis fellowships and matching was analyzed utilizing multivariate logistic regression.

Networking and Applying to Radiation Oncology During A Pandemic: Cross-Sectional Survey of Medical Student Concerns

We assessed the effectiveness of a digital networking session tailor-made for third- and fourth-year medical college students fascinated about radiation oncology, and report college students’ considerations about making use of to radiation oncology in the course of the pandemic. A multi-institutional networking session was hosted on Zoom and included medical college students, college, and residents from throughout the nation. The breakout room characteristic was used to divide members into smaller teams. Participants had been randomly shuffled into new teams each 10 to 15 minutes. Students accomplished pre- and post-session surveys.

Among the 134 college students who registered, 69 college students participated within the session, and 53 college students accomplished a post-session survey. Most college students reported the session was worthwhile or very worthwhile (79%), and it was straightforward or very straightforward to community via the digital format (66%). After the session, 18 (33.9%) college students reported their curiosity in radiation oncology elevated, and 34 (64.2%) reported their curiosity remained the identical. Most college students believed COVID-19 (55%) and digital interviews and platforms (55%) negatively or considerably negatively affected their means to choose a residency program. Most college students (62%) had been involved they are going to be inaccurately evaluated as an interviewee on a digital platform.

Although 30% agreed or strongly agreed the cost-savings and comfort of digital interviews outweigh potential downsides, 66% of college students had been planning to go to cities of curiosity in particular person earlier than rank checklist submission. Medical college students reported vital considerations with their means to be precisely evaluated and to select amongst residency applications on a digital platform. Students discovered the networking session to be a worthwhile useful resource for many college students, and applications might proceed related efforts in the course of the residency utility cycle to higher signify their program whereas sustaining sure monetary and geographic benefits of a digital surroundings.

Undergraduate nursing applications are required to put together nursing college students to take care of individuals throughout the lifespan, nevertheless due to restricted paediatric nursing content material in undergraduate nursing curricula and restricted paediatric medical placements, nursing graduates could lack competence and expertise in caring for youngsters.

Fireside Chats: A Novel Wellness Initiative for Medical Students within the COVID-19 Era

To complement preexisting wellness programming for the surgical procedure clerkship, a school surgeon at Vanderbilt initiated Fireside Chats (FC) in 2015. Inspired by Franklin Roosevelt’s Depression-era radio broadcasts, FC options small group sizes, off-campus excursions, and a reimagining of the mentor-mentee relationship that eschews hierarchy in favor of deep, mutualistic connections in each private and skilled domains. As conclusion, the general public narrative framework has modified the best way medical college students take into consideration how to mobilize individuals for well being promotion in a college.

Here we describe the rationale and implementation of FC and current survey knowledge that show the nice and cozy reception of FC and its efficacy in stewarding the psychological well being of medical college students. Moreover, not like giant group actions resembling “studying communities,” FC continues to meet in-person throughout COVID-19 and preserves social engagement alternatives that will alleviate pandemic-induced isolation and misery. Narrative approaches are gaining energy as sources of motivation to help the adoption of wholesome behaviors.

A qualitative, inductive content material evaluation was carried out to discover a trainer’s reflections on the experiences of a crew of medical college students utilizing public narratives to promote well being inside a Colombian college. Data had been collected from the trainer’s written reflective journal and an educational report, the latter, submitted by the medical college students. ‘Being mobilized’ emerged as an overarching class. The experiences had been described in three interrelated classes: crew involvement, boundaries and countering these boundaries. In phrases of crew involvement, college students had been motivated, dedicated, related with individuals and pissed off. On the opposite hand, boundaries resembling doubts and discomfort remarked, and lastly these boundaries had been countered via coaching, observe and teamwork.

Networking and Applying to Radiation Oncology During A Pandemic: Cross-Sectional Survey of Medical Student Concerns

The function of emotional competencies in predicting medical college students‘ attitudes in direction of communication abilities coaching

This research goals to examine whether or not stress, melancholy and emotional competencies will help to predict medical college students’ attitudes in direction of communication abilities coaching (CST). Anxiety and damaging attitudes in direction of CST have been proven to be linked. Conversely, emotional competencies (EC) had been related to constructive attitudes. Exploring these psycho(patho)logical variables subsequently appears to be a promising strategy to higher understanding, and even modifying, attitudes in direction of CST.
179 third yr medical college students had been requested to full the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale Self-assessment (MADRS-S) and the Profile of Emotional Competence (PEC).  168 college students accomplished your entire questionnaire. The stepwise regression mannequin first revealed that, taken collectively, intrapersonal EC “Utilization” and interpersonal EC “Expression” account for 17% of the variance in constructive attitudes. Secondly, taken collectively, intrapersonal EC “Utilization” and interpersonal EC “Expression” account for 16% of the variance in damaging attitudes.
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The extra competent a scholar is in “Utilization” and “Expression”, the extra constructive attitudes and the much less damaging attitudes he/she has in direction of CST. In addition, measuring a big set of bio-psycho-social components is perhaps a approach of capturing extra variance in attitudes in direction of CST. In the research of variables influencing attitudes in direction of CST, emotional competencies can’t be ignored. The context of the medical session encourages the dialogue of numerous feelings felt by the affected person. As educationalists, we must always put together the coed for this by integrating the notion of EC inside the CST.

Tips For Solving Problems In Immunohistochemistry (Ihc)

The immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique commonly applied in the field of both research and clinical diagnosis. The use of antibodies on a section of tissue allows the specific proteins of interest to be detected, to later determine both their location and abundance by microscopy.

Although, in principle, the protocol may seem relatively simple to apply, it requires optimizing some parameters that will be essential for the good resolution of each test. The same protocol can work perfectly with one antibody, but not with others; and some antibodies may need specific adjustments in some of the steps of the procedure.

In this entry we collect some key considerations to optimize the results and solve problems in Immunohistochemistry (IHC) .

How To Troubleshoot Immunohistochemistry (Ihc)

Below we detail the possible causes (PC) that can lead to ambiguous or erroneous results, as well as the tips or solutions (S) to solve them:

1.- Absence Of Stain

– Antigens –

PC: Absence of antigen, or presence in very low quantity

  • S1: Analyze protein expression by in situ hybridization.
  • S2: Include an amplification step of the detection signal in the protocol.
  • S3: Increase the concentration of the antibody.

PC: Alteration of epitopes during the fixation step

  • S: Try to restore immunoreactivity using antigen recovery techniques.

PC: Ineffective antigen recovery

  • S1: Increase the treatment time.
  • S2: Change the recovery technique.

PC: The protein is located in the nucleus and the antibody cannot penetrate

  • S: Add permeabilizing agents to the blocking buffer and to the antibody dilution buffer.

– Antibodies –

PC: Antibodies have lost activity

  • S1: Follow manufacturer’s instructions regarding antibody storage criteria. (You can find some tips for properly storing antibodies in this post .)
  • S2: Always include positive controls to rule out antibody malfunction.

PC: Incompatibility between primary and secondary antibody

  • S: The secondary antibody must be directed against the species in which the primary antibody was generated. ( Here you can consult a Guide to select secondary antibodies .)

PC: Incorrect primary antibody

  • S: Select a specific antibody against the antigen of interest. It should be borne in mind that in immunohistochemistry, the antibody must recognize the native conformation of the antigen, so it is worth contrasting in the technical sheet that has been validated for use in this application.

– Sample preparation –

PC: Inadequate tissue fixation

  • S1: Increase the fixing time.
  • S2: Try a different fixer.

PC: Over-fixation of the tissue

  • S: Reduce the duration of the dive or the post-fixation steps.

– Reagents –

PC: Reagents have been added in an incorrect order and / or steps have been omitted

  • S: Carefully review the procedure that has been carried out.

2.- Weak Stain Of Protein Diana

– Antigens –

PC: Inadequate antigen recovery

  • S1: Vary the recovery conditions.
  • S2: Change the recovery method

PC: Alteration of the electrostatic charge of the antigen

  • S: Adjust the pH or cationic concentration of the antibody buffer.

– Antibodies –

PC: Low reactivity of the primary antibody

  • S1: Ensure that the pH of the antibody diluent is within the optimal range specified for antibody binding (pH 7-8).
  • S2: Make sure that the antibody has been stored according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
  • S3: Increase the concentration of the primary antibody and / or the incubation time.

PC: Inhibition of secondary antibody

  • S1: Reduce the concentration of the secondary antibody. (While high concentrations of secondary antibody may increase background staining, extremely high concentrations may have the opposite effect, reducing antigen detection.)
  • S2: If the diluent contains antibodies that neutralize the antigen, these will block the binding of the secondary antibody. Remove neutralizing antibodies or change diluent.

– Sample preparation –

PC: Improper fixing method

  • S1: Increase the fixing time.
  • S2: Try a different fixing method.

– Reagents –

PC: enzyme – substrate reactivity

  • S1: Change the enzyme diluent.
  • S2: Prepare the substrate again at a suitable pH.

3.- High Background Noise

– Antibodies –

PC: Secondary antibody exhibits cross reactivity or nonspecific binding

  • S1: Treat the tissue with normal serum of the species that the secondary antibody.
  • S2: Use pre-adsorbed antibody against the species of the sample.

PC: Non-specificity of the primary antibody

  • S1: Reduce the concentration of the primary antibody
  • S2: Increase the concentration of the blocking buffer and reduce the time between blocking and the addition of the primary antibody.
  • S3: Use a different primary antibody.

PC: High concentration of primary or secondary antibody

  • S: Titrate the antibody to determine the optimal working concentration.

PC: Hydrophobic interactions between the antibody and other proteins present in the tissue

  • S: Reduce the ionic strength of the antibody diluent.

PC: incubation time or temperature too high

  • S: Reduce the incubation time and / or temperature.

PC: Inadequate washing of sections

  • S: Wash at least three times between each of the steps of the procedure.

– Sample preparation –

PC: Presence in the tissue of endogenous enzymes (peroxidases and / or phosphatases)

  • S1: Block peroxidases with hydrogen peroxide in methanol before incubation with the primary antibody.
  • S2: Inhibit the action of endogenous phosphatases with levamisole.

PC: Presence of endogenous biotin

  • S: Block endogenous biotin activity by avidin / biotin blocking reagent before incubation with the primary antibody.

PC: The fabric sections have dried

  • S: Prevent the tissue from drying out during the staining process.

The Immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique, like other immunoassays, involves various steps that cannot be universally optimized, having to adjust certain conditions for each of the assays, which translates into a multitude of variables that can affect the the results are as expected.

Une percée technique pour la préparation d’échantillons de protéines

La préparation des échantillons est généralement la première étape de presque tous les travaux sur les protéines. La qualité d’une telle préparation est essentielle à la réussite de l’analyse des protéines. La qualité de l’échantillon de protéines dicte la qualité des résultats expérimentaux. Il existe une demande croissante de préparations protéiques de petite qualité et à grande échelle à des fins analytiques. Comme l’analyse des protéines est devenue de plus en plus complexe, la demande de techniques de préparation d’échantillons adéquates a également augmenté. La préparation d’échantillons de protéines est de plus en plus critique pour les personnes qui travaillent sur la protéomique, la génomique fonctionnelle, les études cliniques, l’expression différentielle, le trafic de protéines et les études structurales et fonctionnelles des protéines. Les préparations d’échantillons de protéines les plus couramment utilisées comprennent, mais sans s’y limiter, l’extraction totale des protéines des cellules ou des tissus en culture, l’isolement / purification des protéines de la membrane plasmique et les fractionnements cellulaires. Traditionnellement, la préparation des échantillons de protéines est réalisée par une variété de techniques dites à base de solutions. Une ou plusieurs solutions de lyse cellulaire couplées à une centrifugeuse représentent un format majeur de méthodes d’extraction de protéines basées sur des solutions. Un exemple typique de préparation d’échantillons de protéines à base de solution utilise le tampon RIPA pour l’extraction totale des protéines. Cette méthode extrait les protéines des échantillons à l’aide d’un tampon d’extraction relativement doux. La procédure dure environ 20 à 30 minutes. Ces dernières années, une technologie basée sur une colonne de rotation est apparue comme une alternative pour l’extraction basée sur une solution. Cette technologie de nouvelle génération associe les méthodes traditionnelles à une colonne de centrifugation spécialement conçue pour une extraction rapide et efficace des protéines. La protéine totale peut être extraite des cellules ou des tissus cultivés en aussi peu que 1 min avec un rendement élevé en protéines et un profil protéique complet sans aucun biais. Par rapport aux méthodes traditionnelles, la technologie basée sur les colonnes tournantes représente une percée technologique et rivalisera favorablement avec les méthodes traditionnelles en termes de facilité d’utilisation, de vitesse et de performances. Cette nouvelle technologie a le potentiel de remplacer le tampon RIPA pour les préparations d’échantillons de protéines.

Basé sur une colonne de spin par rapport à une solution

RIPASonication Spin-Column Based
Temps de traitement (min)25-6015-251-5
Taille d’échantillon minimale (ul)5020020
Ligne de base endogèneNon Oui / Non Oui
Profil protéique complet NonOui / Non Oui
Concentration finale Moyenne Moyenne Élevée
Répétabilité Mauvais Bon Excellent
Facilité d’utilisation Passable Médiocre Excellent

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms and associated risk factors among medical students, Saudi Arabia.

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a typical gastrointestinal disease worldwide that’s associated with impaired high quality of life and greater risk of issues.

The identification of risk factors is critical for preventive measures. The purpose of this research is to judge the prevalence of GERD symptoms in addition to its relation to physique mass index (BMI) and different risk factors among medical college students of Jeddah and Rabigh branches, King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia.A cross-sectional research was carried out on the Faculty of Medicine in Rabigh, King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia.

The research included 197 medical college students from Rabigh and Jeddah branches of the college. The research employed a Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire which is derived from a self-administered validated GERD questionnaire (GerdQ).

ResultsThe prevalence of GERD symptoms was 25.9%. The most frequent symptoms had been regurgitation and burning sensation. High BMI, household historical past, power drinks and fried meals had been discovered to be statistically important risk factors (p<0.05) by univariate evaluation.

However, the logistic regression for the prediction of GERD symptoms among medical college students confirmed that solely household historical past had a major correlation (p<0.05).GERD symptoms had been widespread in medical college students of King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

Family historical past was discovered to be a major predictor of GERD symptoms. Effective instructional methods for teams with important risk factors of GERD should be applied.

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms and associated risk factors among medical students, Saudi Arabia.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms and associated risk factors among medical college students, Saudi Arabia.

Association between private, medical and constructive psychological variables with somatization in college well being sciences college students.

Objective: To measure private, medical and psychological constructive and destructive variables and to find out their relation with somatization in a pattern of well being sciences college students. 

Subjects and strategies: A complete of 594 (34.43%) of the 1725 well being science college students of a public college answered an internet survey with private and medical data in addition to the next psychological variables: phsychological well-being, 5 aspects mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ), life satisfaction, despair, and tutorial stress. Additionally, the presence of 11 somatic symptoms and 11 illnesses over the past yr was measured. 

Results: Most college students had been girls (74.06%) who had been 19.96 ± 4.28 years outdated. The world frequency of somatization within the earlier yr was 66.59%, and the presence of any measured disease 14.75%.

With the multivariate evaluation, self-acceptance was essentially the most associated variable (negatively) with somatization, adopted by the sum of illnesses, feminine gender, tutorial stress, smoking, and despair, in a mannequin with an R-value of 0.634, self-acceptance was additionally essentially the most associated variable (negatively) with despair, being this final essentially the most associated variable with tutorial stress. 

Conclusions: After analyzing all variables thought of on this research, self-acceptance was essentially the most associated variable with somatization and despair; this highlights the significance of strengthening the acceptance of the self within the scholar inhabitants with a view to forestall these circumstances and their penalties.